Analysis of Bullet Screen

When you look at the title, I bet your first thought will be: What is Bullet Screen?

A clear answer would be DIFFICULT. Originated in Japan as 弾幕 and popularized in China, Bullet screen is exclusively used in these two countries. In simple words, bullet screen refers to the comments made by the viewers of the videos that would show up on the screen in the way of scrolling from the right side of the video to the left. (The way of how they fly just like bullets!) In another way, you can also say that those comments are like the “annotations” of the videos, because you can see all the comments made towards certain moments in the video made by others previously. Bullet screen has huge impacts on people’s viewing habits. In this article, I will analyze the positive impacts that brought on people’s viewing experience as well as the positive impacts. I will also find the potential reasons why it is exclusively used in Japan and China but not in America. Hope you will learn more about this culture after reading the article!


Positive effects:

First, bullet screen increases interactivity among viewers. In conventional social media platforms such as Youtube, viewers’ comments are posted underneath the video. This means that if one wants to see other people’s responses, he or she needs to scroll down the screen to see them. This presentation is passive, because viewing comments needs an extra step taken by us. The invention of bullet screen, however, make the comments automatically appear on the video; when viewers open a video, they show up straight up to your face. Also, because they only appear for a few seconds, one can possibly see every comment made on the video without spending extra effort. This is why compared to the traditional way of showing comments, this presentation is active (and beneficial for lazy people!). By using bullet screen, people can see and reply to others’ comments much faster and easier.


The increased interactivity can benefit people’s viewing experience because people feel more socially connected to others. Because of the technological invention (computers and iPad), people tend to watch videos and shows alone. In the past, a family may stay together to watch shows on TV,  but nowadays, it is more likely that everyone in the family has a portable technology that allows him or she to watch anywhere at anytime alone. I know this gives you a lot of freedom to choose whatever you want you want to watch, but to be honest, don’t you feel lonely sometimes? No worries–bullet screen solves the problem. When you watch videos, you can feel the “presence” of others. In one study, the researchers conducted an interview to ask participants questions such as “whether bullet screen made them feel more social or more connected to others compared to their experience of watching traditional videos” (“Social Viewing”) The results show that most participants think that they are more connected to others when they use bullet screen.

Second, bullet screen can also influence people’s viewing experience from psychological aspects. It is proved that the usage of bullet screen would make people more engaged in the content of the video. In one article that I found, the researchers gathered a group of participants, and showed two versions of a short video, one with the bullet screen and one without, to them (“Social Viewing”). Then people were asked to fill out a survey regarding the content of the video, their personal opinions of the video, how much they are engaged in the video, etc. Researchers found out the result the most obvious improvement between the two versions was that people became more engaged in the content they have watched for the video that with the screen bullet. The result is reasonable to think about, for when people make comments, they are actually processing the information from the content of the video first, form thoughts about it, and then make comments on it. The process makes viewers more engaged in the content in order to interact with other viewers through using bullet screen. 

Bullet screen also give people positive feelings. First, they encourage viewers to share their instantaneous emotions and feelings. Because bullet screen only remains for several seconds, viewers don’t have to write about lengthy comments. This gives people sense of freedom to share their emotions at the moment. Second, because making comments on bullet screen is anonymous, people enjoy more freedom to be their authentic selves and express their opinions (“Watching a Movie Alone yet Togther”). At the same time, people don’t need to worry about this anonymousness would lead to inappropriate comments, because if a person says something bad, he or she would be reported to the administrator of the website. The comments will be deleted and the person’s account blocked. Third, bullet comments lead to the intensification of emotion in certain scenarios. For example, in the A Certain Scientific Railgun, which is one of the popular Japanese animation on the website Bilibili, in the moment when the protagonist is attaching the monster, up to total 3000 comments shown up together. It creates a sense of Ran (燃), which is a verb for “fire burning” in Chinese. This shows as an example of how bullet screen can lead to emotional intensification by uplifting the emotions in the viewers.

From another perspective, bullet screen also adds more fun when people are watching videos. One article that I found includes the words by the president of NicoNico, which is the first website used bullet screen as an invention (“A new viewing”). The president said that the value of bullet screen lies in how it could make a video with boring content interesting, which shows the entertaining aspect of bullet screen. This sets the tradition of using bullet screen as it is not really used for serious comments, rather it is often used by the young generation to jibe/complain worthless productions online (“Social Viewing”). Those comments become the major source of entertainment when people ridicules the content together. As the video is watched by a larger audience, more interesting comments may come up, which makes viewing process more entertaining. 

Third, bullet screen has utilitarian functions. Bullet screen fulfills utilitarian needs because people can obtain additional information provided by others. For a lot of time, if people don’t understand something, people can @ people who know such things in the bullet screen. One example of how people are benefited in such case is that in many videos, there are volunteers translating the subtitles. This kind of videos is called fansub. In the website Bilibili, a lot of videos are from other countries such as Korea and Japan, and for many of them, the subtitles are not translated after they are posted on the website. In such case, viewers who understand the language of the video would voluntarily post translated subtitles on the bullet screen for no compensation. The researchers in one article conducted a survey to know how people think that they are benefited from the bullet screen most (“Watching a Movie Alone yet Together”). For the 248 people participated online, the survey showed that the strongest motivation for people to use bullet screen is that it provides extra information.

Example of subfan


Negative effects:

At the same time, bullet screen also brings negative impacts on the viewing experience. Many viewers complain that it causes a lot of distraction when they watch videos. Sometimes when there are too many bullet comments showing up together, they would block the screen so that you can not even know what is going on in the video at the moment. Also, because viewers can choose different colors and different fonts when they send bullet comments, bullet screen may look messy for some time. In the article “Online Social Viewing”, the study shows that another reason why people who don’t like using bullet screen is that they think those comments contain “useless” information that distract them. One example can be that they can be the spoiler of the content of a film. Imagine when you are watching a film, and people would tell you what is going on later, you can expect how annoyed you would be. 

Secondly, people don’t associate bullet screen with the idea of “seriousness”,  and this explains the limitation of its usage. The first reason for this lack of seriousness that the original usage of bullet screen is to mock at the content of the video. It is a common acknowledgement that bullet screen, for most of the time, increases the sense of “amusing” of the video because it is a joking tool. Second, because each bullet comment only shows up for several seconds, and there is a limit of words, the comments often lack depth in their meanings. You can seldom find any profound meanings behind those simple expressions, because very often, people are just sending phrases like “hahahahaha”. Bullet screen is used for people to share their instant feelings rather than do some serious analyzation of the content of the videos. 

The previous two reasons explain why the usage of bullet screen is quite limited. This is why even though a lot of filmmakers see the potentialities in bullet screen, they are pushed back by the voice that bullet screen should not be adapted to art forms that have more serious content. One article that I found talks about an experiment conducted by Shen Leping, who tried to apply Bullet screen in his directed film The Legend of Qin.(“Chinese Theaters Test System”) Shen conducted the experiment that people could send bullet comments while they watching films in several theaters in cities such as Shanghai and Hangzhou in China. In order to make bullet comment on the big screen, people need to pay 0.1 yuan (10 cents) for each message. After the movie, Shen did an interview of those viewers, and found that people had mixed feelings towards the application of bullet screen. Even though many thought it was an interesting and new experience, more thought it was distracting. This experiment suggestes why bullet screen has been a trend in China for several years, it is still not adopted by film industries. 


Why popular exclusively in Asian countries?

At the same time, an interesting question rises: why bullet screen is so popular in East Asian countries but not in Western countries? 

One possible answer is relates to the origins of comedy. In western countries such as the United States, you can see a lot of stand-up comedies and talk shows. For those shows, it is often the case that only one person is performing. In East Asian countries such as China and Japan, the comedy culture is different. In China, the most popular form of comedy is named Xiangsheng(相声), or crosstalk. Xiangsheng is based on the dialogue of two performers through an extremely fast rhythm of talking. In Japan, Manzai(漫才) is the most popular form, which is also conducted through two people’s performance, for one is acting like normal, and the other is acing stupid. This might plains why bullet screen is so popular in both China and Japan, because bullet screen (as we mentioned, it is a mocking tool) can also be considered as a double act comedy between “the content of the video” and “the viewers”. 

Also, from a grander perspective, this also relates to the cultural difference between Western countries and Eastern countries that lasts for centuries. Western societies are penetrated with the idea of “individualism”, which is certainly a product of Capitalism. It is often the case that people prioritize personal will and freedom over collective actions. This is why people who were born or live in Western countries are more used to do solitary actions. Eastern countries, however, puts more emphasis on the idea of collectivism, because many countries are hugely influenced by Confucianist ideology. You can see this collective idea almost from every aspect of Chinese culture, from the family structure to eating habits (like having hotpot). Japan is an interesting case, because while society is dominated by the individualism that people are distanced from each other, society also incorporates the collective ideas. This can be clearly seen in Japanese family structure. Members in a family follow a hierarchy that it is often the case that men would be the breadwinners and women to be housewives. The needs of a family, are put in front of the individual needs. 

This Collectivism vs. Individualism is a possible reason to explain why bullet screen is popular exclusively in Japan and China. As I mentioned above, bullet screen gives us a sense of belonging by making people feel that they are accompanied by others. This conveys a strong message that maybe the reason why bullet screen is popular in Japan and China is because it fits into the larger picture of Chinese and Japanese cultures. But we can not say that it is the reason hundred percent–maybe one day it will be popular in Western countries, who knows? 


In conclusion, bullet screen brings both pros and cons to people’s viewing experience. It is proved by researchers that while bullet screen helps to increase the interactivity between viewers and gives people a sense of belongings, it can also make viewers more engaged in the content of the videos, add more fun to the viewing experience, and provide extra useful information for viewers. At the same time, however, many people also dislike using bullet screen because it can be quite distracting for a lot of time. Its applications in the future is questioned because of the lack of depth in those bullet comments. At the last section of the article, I provide two possible reason why bullet screen does not gain its popularity in western countries, one is relates to forms of comedy, and one is about the larger theme of Individualism vs. Collectivism that is happening in the world.

Nowadays, bullet screen becomes a new culture in China, and the messages carried by this social phenomenon can be significant. Rather than just being a new presentation of comments, it likes a “sign” that implies a trend in the future that people want a more “interactive” and “live” experience when we use those media platforms (VR and Bandersnatch are also showing this trend). It also reflects how people try to find a balance between a “solitary” and “accompaniment” in today’s world. Anyway, bullet screen’s future applications can be expected, and it is an invention with many potentialities and possibilities. Maybe one day in the future, they will become popular in many other countries and be adopted by many major websites that people use today. Remember –if you open a Youtube video tomorrow and you find comments are flying across the screen like bullets–don’t panic. It is not because your computer is broken. Stay clam and be ready for this new kind of culture.


Bibliography

Anan, Wan, Leigh Moscowitz & Linwan Wu. “Online Social Viewing: Cross-Cultural Adoption and Uses of Bullet-Screen Videos.” Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 2019. DOI: 10.1080/17513057.2019.1610187

Coonan, Clifford. “Chinese Theaters Test System of Onscreen Text Messages during Movies.” The Hollywood Reporter, 2014.

Ferena, Menzel. “A New Viewing Experience in the Living Room-Bullet Screens in Vogue.” China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House, 2015, pp.60-62.

Lili, Liu, Ayoung Suh & Christian Wagner.“Watching Online Videos Interactively: the Impact of Media Capabilities in Chinese Danmaku Video Sites.” Chinese Journal of Communication, 2016, pp.283-303.

Soussan, Djamasbi, Adrienne Hall-Phillips, Zaozao Liu, Wenting Li, Jin Bian.“Social Viewing, Bullet Screen, & User Experience: A First Look.” 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. 

Yue Chen, Qin Gao & Pei-Luen Patrick Rau. “Watching a Movie Alone yet Together: Understanding Reasons for Watching Danmaku Videos.” International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 2017, pp. 731-743. DOI: 10.1080/10447318.2017.1282187.

Final website reflection

Over the semester, I have changed the themes of the website for multiple times. This is because while I want to make my website looks clean and precise, I also want to have a good design for my front page. At the begging of the semester, the theme that I chose for my website does not have the design of menu, and later i realized this is really inconvenient for people to navigate through the website. This is why I changed my theme to one that has a menu so that I can organize my posts and pages in a much clearer way. Also, I changed my themes so that the image that I show on the front page looks more comfortable. The picture I chose is from Jean Luc-Goddard’s film Breathless. Because it is a black-and-white film, the contrast between lightness and darkness would be too strong in the original picture. This is why I put an inbox that covers the image so that it looks grayer. I chose the picture because Breathless is the film that helps me to discover my passion in cinema. The film is also meaningful for me because it conveys a lot of existentialist ideas. The sentence that I put over the image exemplifies the idea. 

The website ends up just like how I imaged it. The only thing that I am not satiated with is that because I have to choose the theme for my website, I don’t really a large extent of freedom to do the design. For example, I really like the format of some templates, but because they don’t have the design of menu, I have to choose other templates. At the same time, I am able to accomplish the goal for my website in the way that I am not only making posts that for my media class. I also create a page to put some of my photography works up there. 

Making a website was harder than I thought at the beginning, because at that time I was unfamiliar with all the procedure that I had to go through in order to make the web design. However, once I knew how to make pages, posts, and how to customize them, everything became much easier for me. Nevertheless, I think there are still many other functions of the website that I have not been explored, and I think in the future, I will develop my skills more. At the same time, I will use the website for the future for my film reviews in the future. I think websites will be the best presentation way for those reviews because I can post many images along side the words as well as outside links.

At the same time, making website also helps me to understood our course material on digital media in a very practical way. This is because compared to leaning about media theories, designing website is a much more straightforward way for me to learn the power of digital media. For example, only through writing blog posts, I can clearly sense the difference from making a post and academic wiring. This understanding will be more shallow or less comprehensive if I am just reading articles that talked about it. I think I am also benefited from this assignment because it is a practical skill that I learned in the class. It is not something that I learn and forget from most of the classes, rather, it will stay with me in to the future, and this is defiantly what meaningful about it.

Creative project final

Both of my creative project and my research paper will be about Bullet screen, which refers to the comments that would scroll on screen (from right side to left side) while people are watching videos. Bullet screen is more like an “annotated comments”, for we can see the all the comments that have made previously by people at specific moments of the video. This new presentation of comments is originated from the Japanese website NicoNico, and it adopted by the website Bilibili when it was founded in 2009. As Bilibili becomes one of the most popular websites among young generations, Bullet screen also becomes a trend in China. It has greatly changed people’s viewing habit in China in different ways, and those ideas would be specifically discussed in my research paper.

Instead of just being a new presentation of comments. Bullet screen has much larger impacts on society by becoming a cultural product. For example, people invent a lot of online slangs that are considered as the “bullet screen language”. If you look at those bullet comments in different videos, You can find that there is a repetitive usage of expressions such as Orz, 666, 2333. I am very interested in this phenomenon, and I think it helps to popularize the usage of bullet screen. One reason can be that the usage of those slangs give people a strong sense of belonging. Imagine how good you would feel when you type some wired words on the video and everyone would understand it immediately. Also, because the original purpose of bullet screen is to make fun of the content of the videos, those expressions is a part of this “fun process”.

For this creative project, I decide to do six short videos to introduce some of those slangs used in bullet screen, and those expressions are: KY, Awsl, Orz, ?????, Raw/Cooked meat, and Guichu. I think this would be good complementary of my research paper and it will be interesting for my classmates to learn something new to them. It is my first time making videos, and the process is much harder than I have thought. Because each of my video is quite short (about one to two minutes), I thought that I would not spend exhaustedly amount of time making them, and I realized that I was wrong after I spent few hours making my first video. I learned how to use imovie by myself after watching several videos on Youtube, and explored how to use different functions in the app. The most time-consuming part of making my videos is that I need to find clips that can be shown as examples. I spent a lot of time finding some videos in Bilibili that has the expressions that I am introducing in my videos. Also, the sound-recording part is also difficult for me. Because I am not a native speaker, sometimes when I get nervous when I am recoding so that I could not speak very clearly or smoothly.

Anyway, here are my six videos. In each of them, I explained how they are formed or originated, and in what occasions that they are used. They might still be a little bit confusing, but I have tried my best to make them. I think this creative project fits into our class in different ways. For example, the topic itself (investigation of online slangs) exemplifies that media has the power to change people’s way of communicating with each other. It has such huge impacts on our daily life that it even changes how languages is used. Also, the process of making videos reminds me of the four affordances that we learned earlier in the class. Navigating through imovie, I am constantly aware of how much procedural process I have been through in order to make those videos. At the same time, I develop a deeper understanding of how digital tools are the capacity to contain and circulate information (and I become more admire of video-makers). I have learnt a lot from this video-making process, and I am definitely proud of what I have done. I really hope that you enjoy watching them and you can learn something from them.

  1. Raw/Cooked meat

2. Awsl

3. Orz

4. KY

5. Gui Chu

6. ?????

Research Essay Rough draft

Introduction

Positive impacts 

The first aspect of how bullet screen could change the viewing culture is that it increases interactivity among viewers. In conventional social media platforms such as Youtube, viewers’ comments are posted underneath the video. This means that if one wants to see other people’s responses, he or she needs to scroll down the screen to see them. Sometimes when there are a lot of comments, the viewer needs to spend quite amount of time reading all of them. This presentation is passive, because viewing comments is an extra step. The invention of bullet screen, however, make the comments automatically appear on the video; when you open a video, they show up straight up to your face. Also, because they only appear for a few seconds, viewers can possibly see every comment made on the video without spending extra effort on it. This convenience provided by bullet screen increases the interactivity among viewers, because people can see and reply to others’ comments in a much faster and easier way.  

The increased interactivity brings benefits to viewer’s viewing experience. First, it makes viewers feel that they are more socially connected to others. Because of the technological invention (computers and iPad), it becomes a trend that people tend to watch videos alone. In the past, a family may stay together to watch shows on TV,  but nowadays, it is more likely that everyone has a portable technology that allows him or her to watch videos anywhere at anytime alone. While this gives viewers more freedom to choose what they want to watch, it also makes the viewing process more of a solitary action. Bullet screen, however, solves this dilemma. Even when one is watching alone, he or she can feel the “presence” of others. In one study, the researchers conducted an interview to ask participants the question whether bullet screen made them feel more social or more connected to others compared to their experience of watching traditional videos. (pg.654) The results show that most participants think that they are more connected to others when they use bullet screen. 

Second, this interactivity increases the sustainability of the website because it boosts videos’ desire to continue using it. This can be supported by a case study, in which they show that high frequency users tend to make more positive comments on bullet screen. (“Watching a Movie Alone yet Together”) In another research, it is shown that after an experience of real-time commenting, most participants who showed lack of  interest at first changed their attitude to show the favor of using bullet screen. (“Online social viewing”) How bullet screen boots viewers’ intention of share and use it forms a virtuous circle; the higher frequency people use bullet screen, the higher possibility that they tend to continuously using it. This explains why Bilibili gradually becomes the most popular website among Chinese teenagers right now. Other main video platforms in China such as AIQIYI see how bullet screen contributes to the sustainability of the website and start to adapt this invention. 

The second aspect of how bullet screen shapes viewers’ viewing experience is more of a psychological aspect. The usage of bullet screen would make the audience more engaged in the consent of the video. This is supported by study conducted by researchers in “Social Viewing, Bullet Screen, & User Experience: A First Look.” The researchers gathered a group of participants, and showed two versions of a short video, one with the bullet screen and one without, to those participants. Then people are asked to fill out a survey regarding the content of the video. Researchers found out that the most obvious improvement between the two versions is that people become more engaged in the content they have watched for the video that with the screen bullet on. The result is reasonable to think about, for when viewers make comments, they are actually processing the information from the content of the video first, form thoughts about it, and then make comments on it. The process makes viewers more engaged in the content when the bullet screen is on.

Bullet screen also brings people positive feelings in different ways. First, they encourage viewers to share their instantaneous emotions and feelings. Because the comments for the bullet screen is rolling from the right side of the video to the left side and remains for several seconds, viewers don’t have to write about lengthy and complicated comments. This makes people feel a sense of freedom to share their emotions at the moment. Second, because making bullet comments is anonymous, people enjoy more freedom share authentic opinions (“Watching a Movie Alone”). At the same time, people don’t need to worry about this anonymousness would lead to inappropriate comments. If one viewer makes such comments, he or she would be criticized by all the other viewers and being reported to the administrator of the website. The comment would be deleted and person’s account would be blocked. Third, comments would possibility leads to the intensification of emotion in certain scenarios. For example, in the Scientific Railgun ( Japanese animation), at the moment when the protagonist is attacking the monster, up to total 3000 comments shown up together. It creates a sense of Ran(燃), which is a verb for how fire burning in Chinese. This intensification beings a collective joy for fans of the animation.

From another perspective, bullet screen also influences people psychologically because it almost becomes an entertaining tool. The article “A new viewing experience in the living room-Bullet Screens in Vogue” by Menzel Ferena introduces the history of bullet screen. The article includes the words by the president of NicoNico, which is the first website used bullet screen as an invention. The present said that the value of bullet screen lies in how it could make a video with boring content interesting, which shows the entertaining aspect of bullet screen. This sets the tradition of using bullet screen as it is not really used for serious comments, rather it is often used by the young generation to jibe/complain worthless productions online (pg.62). Those comments become the major source of entertainment when people ridicules the content together. As the video is watched by a larger audience, more interesting comments may come up, which makes viewing a more entertaining. 

The third aspect of how bullet screen influences viewing experience is for its utilitarian function. Bullet screen also fulfills utilitarian needs because people can obtain additional information provided by other audience. For a lot of time, if people don’t understand something, they would @ people who know such things in the bullet screen. One example of how people are benefited in such case is that in many videos, there are volunteers to translate the language. Because in the website Bilibili, many videos are from other countries such as Korea and Japan, sometimes they are not translated after being posted on the website. In such case, viewers who understand the language of the video would voluntarily post translated subtitles on the bullet scream for no compensation. The researchers of the article “Watching a Movie Alone yet Together: Understanding Reasons for Watching Danmaku Videos” conducted a survey to know what do people think about how they are benefited from the bullet screen most. For the 248 people participated online, the survey shows that the strongest motivation for people to use bullet screen is that it provides information. 

Negative impacts 

–distraction

–don’t really fit with serious content such as film

Why restricted in Asian countries 

— the origin of comedy

–individualism vs. collectivism 

Bibliography

Anan, Wan, Leigh Moscowitz & Linwan Wu. “Online social viewing: Cross-cultural adoption and uses of bullet-screen videos.” Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 2019. DOI: 10.1080/17513057.2019.1610187

Coonan, Clifford. “Chinese Theaters Test System of Onscreen Text Messages during Movies.” The Hollywood Reporter, 2014.

Ferena, Menzel. “A new viewing experience in the living room-Bullet Screens in Vogue.” China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House, 2015, pg.60-62.

Lili, Liu, Ayoung Suh & Christian Wagner.“Watching online videos interactively: the impact of media capabilities in Chinese Danmaku video sites.” Chinese Journal of Communication, 2016, pg.283-303.

Soussan, Djamasbi, Adrienne Hall-Phillips, Zaozao Liu, Wenting Li, Jin Bian.“Social Viewing, Bullet Screen, & User Experience: A First Look.” 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. 

Yue Chen, Qin Gao & Pei-Luen Patrick Rau. “Watching a Movie Alone yet Together: Understanding Reasons for Watching Danmaku Videos.” International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 2017, pg. 731-743. DOI: 10.1080/10447318.2017.1282187

Creative project draft

For this creative project, I will make probably six or seven short introduction videos for expressions commonly used in Bullet Screen. Each video will be about one or two minutes long. The videos will introduce how they are invented(where is the origin) and how they are used in different ways.

Right now I have made three short videos, and they are not fully completed (I will add my own voice to make clarification for some parts). But you can see how the format of each video will be.

KY
ORZ
AWSL

Extra Credit #3

On November 6th, I went to the screening The Apartment(1960). Same as the last time, Dr. Bernstein gave a little talk about what the film is about, and actors and actresses, and some other background information about it (like it was nominated by several Oscar prices). It is the second Billy Wilder’s film that I watched this semester, and I think both of them are very good and changed my mind towards Classic Hollywood cinema a lot. Compared to the Double Indemnity, I like this film more in terms of its story and the morals behind it. I think that even though the film is told in a light-hearted way, it really reflects the dark side in working place that people’s values are corrupted by their ambition to get promoted and get more money. There is nothing wrong to be ambitious, but it is just sad to see that they need to give up those most precious personalities in exchange for their success. In the end of the film, the protagonist faces a choice between his job(executive assistant) and the woman he loves, and I think it is so cruel that he is forced to do. It is also sad to see that people who have high positions in the company are abusing their power and bullying the workers who have lower positions. We can see that there is a very clear power structure of the company, as the more powerful ones are able to determine the destiny of those less powerful people. I remember when the protagonist refuses to give the key to the executive, executive says something like you so much effort and time to get this position, and I can throw you back in few seconds. What is horrible about it is that it is just merely a fictional story, since a lot of such things happened in real life. I think the film really helps us to look into reality by excising the dark side straight up to our faces. Besides the morals, I really like how the tone of the film is quite light, and Jack Lemmon’s performance is very entertaining to watch. There are a lot of jokes in it, and even though I can’t get them all, I laughed out loudly with many other audience for many times. Overall, I really enjoyed that two hours and I look forward to watching more of his works.

Creative Project Proposal

For my creative project, I have two ideas. First, I may interview several of my friends about their experience of using Bullet screen. I will come up with ten questions such as How do you think you are benefited/not benefited from it, How does it influence your viewing habit, and What is your personal experience with it. I may do a podcast or a short film(filming the interviews). I think it will be a good way for us to learn more about bullet screen since my friends can provide different perspectives and insights about the subject. The difficulty that I may face is that have never edited a film before, so I need to learn how to do editing if I chose to make the short film.

The second idea will be more focus on the language used in Bullet screen. I want to explore more about those unconventional expressions such as 2333, 666, orz. If I decide to chose this topic, I will make short videos for different expression (like a crash course) to describe what do they mean in English, in what contexts they are used, and where and how do they originated. I want to make each of those videos short and brief (maybe just one minute) so that people can get the core messages carried by those expressions easily. I will also find examples of how those expressions being used in other videos in Bilibili and cooperate those sources into my crash course videos. I will organize a page in my website to upload those short clips so that everyone can look them up. I think it will be a good opportunity for me to learn more about how bullet screen creates a new culture among teenagers and also, it can help my classmates to learn more about Chinese culture. If I choose to do this as my creative project, I will also need to learn how to edit videos. I will use imovie as my tool and explore how to use it to make videos.

Extra Credit#2

On Oct.24th, I attended Dr. Aubrey Anable’s lecture about the video game Gone Home. I am in Dr.Reynolds’ class Film408: Media, Time, and Space, so I read her book Playing with Feelings before, which prepared me to comprehend her theories about video games. In the lecture, she talks about how her works are related to two questions: ‘what does the queer practice of “reparative reading” look like for video games?’ and ‘what can video games teach us about theory and criticism as emotional stances?’ I don’t really understand the queer part of her work, since queer culture is not a part of culture in my own county, I am not familiar with it and I don’t want to make any shallow comments about it. Nevertheless, what I think it is very interesting that she uses the Affect theory to explain how video games can exert huge emotional impacts on gamers. When we play video games, it is not a one-direction process that we, as the subject, are playing the games, which are the objects; rather, intersubjectivity plays a key role in this gaming process. Her ideas have a clear reference to philosophers such as Deleuze and phenomenologists Ponty. Her works explore the reasons of why and how game should receive higher recognition from people, and the lecture she gave in the afternoon as well as the Q&A session in Film408 class really changed my mind as how video games have positive impacts on people. I am personally not a gamer, and I often think that playing video games makes people addicted, which is certainly a quite biased idea.

Annotated bibliography

  • Anan, Wan, Leigh Moscowitz & Linwan Wu. “Online social viewing: Cross-cultural adoption and uses of bullet-screen videos.” Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 2019. DOI: 10.1080/17513057.2019.1610187

The researchers of this article designed an experiment to investigate two specific questions: “How do online video viewers respond to and interact with bullet-screen videos, including video viewing and commenting?” and “What role does culture play in how users experience bullet-screen videos?”(pg.5) For the experiment, the participants watched the movie trailer of Zootopia for two times, one without bullet screen and one with bullet screen. The participants were also asked to leave comments on the video. After the experiment, people are interviewed to comment on their experience. Based on the results, the researchers developed three themes of the study: the affordances of bullet-screen videos, the potential barriers to the adoption and usage of this technology, and the cultural differences that influence how viewers respond to bullet-screen videos (pg.7). 

First, research identified two unique affordances of bullet-screen: social viewing and real-time commenting. The interesting finding is that most participants showed lack of  interest to make comments at first, but once they really do the commenting, they changed their attitude to show the favor. Second, potential barriers including “multitasking, knowledge of a language, and the content of the videos” (pg.10). For example, some people find bullet comments can be distracting, and some think they are the spoilers. For the third theme, investigators discuss how culture plays a role in this technological adoption, including the usage of language, the interplay between content and the interface, and the role of perceived “insider status.”(pg. 12) For example, a specific language evolved as part of that subculture of bullet screen, and knowledge of that language became a key to understanding others comments (pg.12) (for example: 666=awesome,2333=laugh) Chinese participants find that they are hard to focus on comments that are made in English. Also, the result shows that while Chinese students enjoyed more of reading comments and sharing with others, American students showed less interest, which may be explained by the different culture of collectivism and individualism in two countries. Another point made is that how bullet screen allows people to create a kind of new culture that grant them the “insider status” is also the reason why some viewers drawn to bullet screen. It is definitely a good resource to show how culture plays a role to influence people’s opinions towards bullet screen and what are some potential reasons why bullet screen has not been popularized in western countries yet. 

  • Coonan, Clifford. “Chinese Theaters Test System of Onscreen Text Messages during Movies.” The Hollywood Reporter, 2014.

This article talks about an experiment conducted by Shen Leping, who tried to apply Bullet screen in his directed film The Legend of Qin. Shen conducted the experiment in several theaters in different cities such as Shanghai and Hangzhou. In order to make bullet comment on the big screen, people need to pay 0.1 yuan (10 cents) for each message. Shen tried to explore how bullet screen would affect the movie and people’s viewing experience. The result shows how people have mixed feelings towards the application of bullet screen. While some found it is distractive, because those messages block the screen, some think that this interactivity is fun. The source is not as formal as the others, but it shows the fact that bullet screen is so commonly used in China and this trend creates a new wave as younger generations are so attracted to it. Shen explores the possibility of whether this new viewing technology would spread into film industry from online videos. I think it is interesting to think about whether this culture will be adopted in other realms rather than online websites in the future. 

  • Ferena, Menzel. “A new viewing experience in the living room-Bullet Screens in Vogue.” China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House, 2015, pg.60-62.

The reading first gives a brief overview of bullet screen’s culture as it is originated from Japanese’ website NicoNico and spread to China in 2018. Unlike other traditional way of commenting that you need to scroll down to another section to see the comments, the bullet screen allows comment to appear directly on the screen. Bullet screen becomes a “a happy marriage between online video and social networking”, and videos that are targeted by bullet comments are often some ridiculous videos and shoddy films. (pg.61) The article includes the words by the president of NicoNico, who said that the value of bullet screen lies in how it could make a video with boring content interesting, which shows the entertaining aspect of bullet screen. The reading also talks about how some movie theaters and distributors see a lot of potentialities of this invention. For example, it is regarded as a powerful marketing tool by some companies. Few filmmakers try to adopt this invention into cinema, and this incites debate in society as some think they should not relate to serious art productions because it is often used by the young generation to jibe/complain worthless productions online (pg.62). I think this article clearly shows how bullet screen is a new trend in China from a social perspective, and how people are arguing whether it will expand to other media such as film and Tv or other realms such as business rather than just being a mocking tool on websites. 

  • Lili, Liu, Ayoung Suh & Christian Wagner.“Watching online videos interactively: the impact of media capabilities in Chinese Danmaku video sites.” Chinese Journal of Communication, 2016, pg.283-303.

The article is divided into three sections to discuss how bullet screen increases perceived interactivity in people’s viewing experience. First, the article introduces the conception of media capabilities by talking about the five factors of it, which are “transmission velocity”, “parallelism”, “symbol sets”, “rehearsability”, and “re-processability” (pg.287). This section provides a brief argument about how bullet screen fulfills each of these five factors.

In the second section, the researchers create a model by discussing how each factor is positively related to the perceived interactivity, and how this interactivity would influence viewers’ intention of“share” and boost people’s desire to continuously “use” bullet screen. The researchers collected data through an online survey and conducted a data analysis through statistical calculations. The result of the measurement shows that all five contributors of bullet screen contribute to the increase of interactivity between viewers  and the vales also show that the interactivity positively related to viewers’ intention of continuous usage and sharing of bullet screen. 

In the last section, the researchers talk about the theoretical and practical implications of the results of analyses, including how this invention of social media enhances the website sustainability, how it creates a new dynamics of audience’s viewing experience such as shapes people’s intentions in general, and how website managers could enhance users’ perceived interactivity by focusing on the five components of interactivity (pg.297). I think it is a good resource to show how bullet screen becomes a new communication tool that makes social media more interactive. 

  • Soussan, Djamasbi, Adrienne Hall-Phillips, Zaozao Liu, Wenting Li, Jin Bian.“Social Viewing, Bullet Screen, & User Experience: A First Look.” 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. 

The articles shows a controlled study to show how bullet comments influences people’s viewing experience in general. In the first study, researchers show two versions of a short video to participants of the study, one with the bullet screen and one without. Then people are asked to fill out a survey regarding the content of the video, their personal opinions of the video, how much they are engaged in the video, etc. The result of the study is divided into three sections, including “Mood”, “Engagement”, and “Social presence” (pg.648). Through the study, researchers found that while there is evidence to show that bullet screen “makes viewers more engaged in the video, it did not affect viewers’ mood nor did it improve their perception of social presence” (pg.653). 

Thus the researchers conducted the second study, in which the participants are not asked to fill in surveys but to directly answer questions in the format of interviews. They used their own words to explain whether “bullet screen made them feel more social or more connected to others compared to their experience of watching traditional videos” and “their willingness to recommend bullet screen to a friend” (pg. 654) The results show most participants think that they are more connected to others when they use bullet screen. However, some think that bullet screen is distracting. At the last section of the research, the researchers conclude that bullet screen would influence audience’s viewing experience by making video more engaging and improving people’s sense of social presence as a new way of communication. I think the value of this article lies in how it provides an explanation of how bullet screen has psychological impact on people, and it also clearly shows that bullet screen helps people to have this co-viewing experience. 

  • Yue Chen, Qin Gao & Pei-Luen Patrick Rau. “Watching a Movie Alone yet Together: Understanding Reasons for Watching Danmaku Videos.” International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 2017, pg. 731-743. DOI: 10.1080/10447318.2017.1282187

The article tries to show what are some motivations of using Danmaku and how individual differences influence people’s view of Danmaku. The largest motivation is based on how the co-viewing experience of Danmaku is different from co-viewing of other social media platforms. The first reason is that because Danmaku is anonymous, people enjoy more freedom to be their authentic selves and express their opinions. Second, Danmaku provides a “pseudo-synchronic” of co-viewing experience, which means that “viewers can read comments sent by all the viewers who watched the same video before so that the experience is not completely synchronized.”(pg.734) As the video is watched by a larger audience, more interesting comments may come up, which makes viewing a more entertaining. Finally, the short appearance of each rolling comment on the screen also encourages viewers to share their instantaneous emotions and feelings. Danmuku also fulfills utilitarian needs because people can obtain additional information provided by other audience. It also has hedonic value, for those comments become the major source of entertainment when people ridicules the content together. 

The scholars conducted two experiments (a pilot study and a survey) to show how individual differences influence people’s perceptions towards Danmaku. For the study, 11 participants(some use Danmaku in high frequency and some in low) are asked to take part in group discussions, and they are asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding their experience of Danmaku. The results show that high frequency users tend to make more positive comments on Danmaku, and those don’t use Danmaku give more negative comments such as how Danmaku provides useless and excessive information. For the survey, 248 people participated online, and 85% of them are students. The survey shows that the strongest motivation for people to use Danmaku is that it provides information as well as serves as entertainment tool. Social connectedness is regarded as the second important reason. The strongest negative factor of Danmaku is that it creates visual clutter. The regression analysis of the survey also shows that introverted users were more likely to watch Danmaku video, and those who are more open to new experiences show more favor of Danmaku (pg.741).

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